Today’s topic is lil’ different from what you have read at the readers desk so far. So topic is about the father of our nation Mahatma Gandhi so here I am with all his principles and thoughts on which he led his whole life.
By the time Gandhi ji returned to India from South Africa, he had already attained political maturity. He developed his philosophy and the technique of Satyagraha as an instrument for redressing the grievances of the immigrant Indian minority in South Africa. The term Satyagraha means firmness in the truth or holding onto truth or truth force, which was introduced by him to describe an approach which sought victory not by the forcible defeat of the opponent but by bringing about a change in his heart through one’s own suffering or self-sacrifice.
Gandhiji’s Non-violence was a another well worked out philosophy. According to him, resort to violence to enforce one’s own understanding of truth was sinful. He understood non-violence from its Sanskrit root “Ahimsa” (doing no harm) which is the hindi word of non-violence. The aim of non-violence is simply to win over your opponent’s mind and heart without any violence. He made ahimsa his non-violent tool for mass-action.
The non-violent techniques which were used by Gandhiji are:
• Peaceful strikes
• Peaceful demonstrations
• Hunger strikes
• Conflict-free protests
Let’s look at the major freedom movements initiated by Mahatma Gandhi:
1. Champaran Movement (1917)
It was Gandhiji’s first active involvement in freedom politics. The condition of Indigo cultivators of Champaran district of Bihar became miserable under the Tinkathiya system. The European planters compelled the peasants to grow Indigo on a part of their holdings and to sell it to the planters at prices fixed by them which was very low. Hearing of Gandhiji’s campaigns in South Africa, several peasants of Champaran invited him to help their cause. Mahatma Gandhi then adopted the idea of civil disobedience movement and launched demonstrations and strikes against the landlords.
2. Kheda Movement (1917)
Kheda, a village in Gujarat badly suffered from repeated famines and plagues making revenue payments difficult. The local farmers appealed to the rulers to waive off the taxes but the appeals for the remission of revenue were ignored by the Government. Here Gandhiji started a no-tax campaign where peasants pledged for non-payment of taxes.
3. Khilafat Movement(1919)
After the first World War, the Muslims feared for the safety of their Caliph or religious leadership and a worldwide protest was being organised to fight against the collapsing status of the Caliph in Turkey. Under the guidance of Mahatma Gandhi the movement was launched against the British government where Gandhi ji was elected as a president. The success of this movement made him the national leader.
4. Non-cooperation Movement (1920)
The horrible day of Jallianwala Bagh Massacre triggered the non-cooperation movement. Gandhi ji introduced the concept of Swaraj which since then became the motto of Indian freedom movement. With the help of Congress, Gandhi ji convinced people for starting this movement in a peaceful way which became the key factor in the independence of India.
5. Civil Disobedience Movement; salt Satyagraha (1930)
It is also called Dandi March or Salt Satyagraha, one of the major non-violent protest in India led by Gandhiji waging against the British government’s salt tax in He marched 388 kilometres from Ahmedabad to Dandi in Gujarat to make salt. Thousands of people joined him and made it one of the biggest marches in Indian history.
6. Quit India Movement (1942)
This was by far the most famous and major movement launched by Mahatma Gandhi during the Second World War to drive British rule out of India. In the movement Mahatma Gandhi gave the ‘Do or Die’ slogan stating ‘we shall either free India or die in the attempt. As a result the whole members of Indian National Congress were arrested by the British officials and imprisoned them without trial. But the protest continued across the nation.
And this way the Doctrine of Ahimsa played an essentially unifying role in struggle against the foreign rule by using his two main weapon Truth and Non-violence.
The social ideals of Gandhi ji are incorporated in Hind Swaraj, where he asserted that the real enemy was not the British domination but the modern Industrial civilisation itself. It represented a response to the deeply alienating effects of modernisation, particularly under colonial conditions.
And the very famous statue of the three monkeys of Mahatma Gandhi, Bapu, Ketan and Bandar at the Sabarmati Ashram in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India depicts the idea of Gandhiji’s principles which is – See no evil, Speak no evil, and Hear no evil. This moral gestures seems to have lost in todays life. The amount of desperation now people have for every other thing in any way they come across is unbelievable.
Let’s recall the most inspiring and motivational quotes by Mahatma Gandhi;
-“Live as if you were to die tomorrow. Learn as if you were to live forever”.
– “You must be the change you wish to see in the world”.
– “First they ignore you, then they laugh at you, then they fight you, then you win”.
– “We need not wait to see what others do.”
-“The best way to find yourself is to lose yourself in the service of others.”
– “A man is but the product of his thoughts. What he thinks, he becomes.”
– “Earth provides enough to satisfy every man’s needs, but not every man’s greed.”
– “Freedom is not worth having if it does not include the freedom to make mistakes.”